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Monomers & Polymers - Properties, Uses

A monomer is a basic unit of polymers, they react with other molecules to form a large molecule called polymers. Monomers have the capacity to form a covalent linkage with other monomer units. The monomers with two bonds can form linear, and straight chain-like polymers but monomers with higher functionality can make cross-linked monomer products. The origin of a monomer can be natural or synthetic.

Functionality of Monomer- All types of organic molecules can not act as monomers. An organic molecule acts as a monomer only when it possesses two bonding sites. Monomers display a wide variety of molecules, they are categorised into different subgroups example sugars, amines, acrylics and epoxides.

Examples of Monomers

Vinyl chloride, amino acids, glucose and ethylene are the common examples of monomers. Glucose is the natural monomer which is polymerized by forming glycosidic bonds. Amino acids (it polymerizes into proteins, peptides), Vinyl chloride ( polymerizes into PVC or Poly Vinyl Chloride).

Significance of Monomer-

The functionality of a monomer largely decides the nature of polymer formed by it as it clear from the following-

  • Monofunctional molecules are unable to undergo polymerisation
  • Bifunctional polymers form only linear or straight chain polymers. This is because in case of a bifunctional monomer, the bonding groups attach side by side to each other, resulting in the formation of a large linear molecule.
  • In case of trifunctional or polyfunctional monomers, the polymers formed consist of a three-dimensional network. In such polymers, the monomer units are connected together by strong covalent bonds and the movement of polymer chains is completely restricted.

Types of Monomers on the basis of synthesis-

Acrylic Monomers- These are highly reactive chemicals used extensively in the production of other products. For instance, a single molecule of acrylic acid is called a monomer but when it combines with other monomers to form big chains of repeating polymers.

Properties of Acrylic Monomer-

  • These monomers have a strong smell and are highly reactive
  • Some acrylic monomers can form hydrophobic polymers.
  • These monomers are flammable and can damage tissue if inhaled.


Polymers are the large molecules that are made up of thousands of atoms linked together in a repeated pattern. The covalent chains are formed in the same way the other atoms are linked with each other to form a large chain. The pattern can vary from plastic bags to things you are surrounded by. Polymers have repeat units means two carbon atoms are linked to form a single structure.

Isoprene is one of the natural monomers, after the polymerization, it converts to natural rubber.

Important Properties of Polymer

  1. They are made of flexible long chains of carbon atoms
  2. They can be used to create 3-D patterns.
  3. Polymers have the property (slow-cooling) to fold on themselves


It occurs through a variety of reaction mechanisms that most probably varies in the arrangement due to the difference in functional groups. PVC is also known as a homopolymer as they have repeated chains of a carbon atom. Polymers with more than one unit of monomer are referred to as copolymers. Polymerization is moderated as the mechanism of this process is very fast and dangerous. There are two types of polymerization- step-growth and chain-growth.

Classification of Polymer on the basis of origin-

Depending upon the source of origin, polymer can be divided into following two classes

  • Natural Polymers- The polymers which occur in nature are called natural polymers. Example- starch, cellulose, proteins, nucleic acid, natural rubber etc.
  • Semi-synthetic polymers- T hese are mostly derived from naturally occurring polymers by chemical modification. Example- cellulose diacetate belongs to this category.
  • Synthetic polymers- The Polymers which are synthesised in the laboratory are called synthetic polymers. Example- Polyethylene, Polyvinyl Chloride, Nylon, Teflon and synthetic rubbers, etc..

Different Functional Groups of Monomers

Double bonds are found in Monomers with around a ring of more than three atoms, examples are butadiene and acrylonitrile which co-ploymerize to form Nitrile rubber. Monomers that contain reactive atomic groupings, categorise into condensation polymerization. Example- The compound having both groups alcohol and acid can aggressively form ester. The ester formation involves the alcohol group of each molecule with the acid group to form long chain polyester.

Chirag Enterprise is the leading supplier of the below products-

  1. Methyl Methacrylate Monomer (MMA)- Methyl Methacrylate Monomer is a colorless liquid also known as Methacrylic acid. Methyl Methacrylate Monomer is a strong reactive liquid used in various manufacturing industries in the polymerized form. This monomer has a relaxation effect which may result in Nitric oxide in the mediated purpose.
    Methyl Methacrylate Monomer is a clear liquid and slightly soluble in water. It is an enoate ester having methacrylic acid methanol as the alcohol group and carboxyl acid group. It is a polymerization monomer and acts as an allergen. Methyl Methacrylate is a monomer produced on the larger scale for the production of polymethyl methacrylate monomer (P-MMA)
  2. Recycled Methyl Methacrylate Monomer ( R-MMA) Recycled / Regenerated Monomer serves as an additive in a wide range of copolymer-based products and it is used for different purposes- casting sheets, pipes, and rods. Recycled Methyl Methacrylate Monomer is purified using steps that include depolymerization, neutralization, and distillation process in order to achieve purity. After these complex steps, Recycled Methyl Methacrylate Monomer is obtained.
  3. Crude Methyl Methacrylate Monomer (C-MMA)- Our plant consists of 15 De-Polymerizing furnaces which enable us to produce 1,500 Metric tons per month. This makes us the largest manufacturer and exporter of Crude methyl methacrylate monomer (C-MMA) in India with purity ranging from 91% - 93%. Crude Methyl Methacrylate Monomer is manufactured by depolymerizing PMMA. The quality of our raw material that we import to manufacture Crude MMA is unmatched across our industry.

Why choose Chirag Enterprise for monomers?

At Chirag Enterprise, We serve quality and satisfaction to our customers. We are the leading supplier and exporter of monomers. We have been delivering chemicals to manufacturing industries across the globe. We are looking forward to serve purity.